Marwan Muhammad, Elsa Rayand and Michaël Privot argue that “governments urgently need to take action against Islamophobic violence”. They argue:
“There is a tendency to view hostility and violence towards Muslims as normal and acceptable. Prejudice against Muslims does not always carry the same social stigma as prejudice against other ethnic and religious groups.”
A first step would be to “officially recognise Islamophobia as a specific form of racism”.